Saturday, October 29, 2016

Quilt basting party

Back in September, my mom came to visit and we basted a quilt!  I started this quilt back in June, although apparently this is the first time I've blogged about it.  It's a wedding gift (now very belated) for a very dear friend and her husband.  They had a beautiful and fun outdoor wedding in the mountains at the end of June.

I knocked this pattern off from a picture I saw on Pinterest over a year ago.  If I remember right, the quilt I saw was intended to be a fancy Irish chain, but I thought it looked more like a modernized, embellished Double Wedding Ring.

I was not up for making a queen-sized bed quilt, so this quilt is a twin size.  The top finished at about 62" by 92".  I figure it will be perfect for the newlyweds to cuddle under on the couch, or they can use it as a guest bed quilt.

My mom helped me spray-baste the quilt.  It turns out our empty spare bedroom is perfect for quilt-basting.  Since then I've been slowly chipping away at the quilting.  I can't wait to get it done so I can finally send it to our friends (maybe it'll be a combined Christmas and belated wedding gift!).

Saturday, September 17, 2016

Bucket hats!

When I started making the Paddington Bear shirt for my nephew, I very quickly decided that he needed a red bucket hat to go with it - just like Paddington wears.  I had already downloaded the free Oliver + S bucket hat pattern, and it was perfect!
Of course I had to make one for my niece, too.  Hers is a yellow floral with brown floral lining.
Both hats are size Medium (3-5 years), even though my niece is almost 3 and my nephew is 15 months - the internet says the hats run small.  From pictures, it looks like the hats fit well and are adorable.

They are fully reversible, and I used this tutorial to finish them without any hand sewing. I hear that the kids like the hats.  Which is good, because the dog didn't like it at all.

Friday, September 9, 2016

Paddington Bear

Early this summer, my sister-in-law and I went and shopped the Hancock's Fabrics closing sale.  She found an adorable Paddington Bear print and asked me to sew another button-up shirt for my nephew, like the one I made for his birthday.  I asked about sizing, and she suggested that a little more room in the shoulders would be nice, so I got to try my first attempt at altering a pattern!  I added a quarter inch to each shoulder seam, as you can see in the picture above, for a total of half an inch of extra width across the shoulders.
Then I sewed up the shirt, just like the last one - except this time I remembered to use Nicole's trick of cutting the collar interfacing into two pieces to make the collar fold extra nicely.

I put the shirt in the mail last weekend, and this morning my sister-in-law sent me a picture of my nephew looking very handsome in his new shirt!

Sunday, September 4, 2016

Knitting this Summer

I didn't post much this summer, but I did knit!  I've been working intermittently on my navy shawl, and I knit almost a whole sweater:

I'm excited to have another (hopefully) presentable sweater to wear to work and church.  And I'm worried about running out of yarn.  I started with eight balls of yarn, and I have just under two left.  All I have left to do is the second sleeve and the i-cord edging around the front edges and neckline.  I'm steeling myself for the possibility that I may need to unravel my (machine washed and dried) swatch to finish.  We'll see how it goes.

Sunday, August 21, 2016

The Ravellenic Games

I wanted to participate in the Ravellenic Games, but between prepping all my classes, getting settled in the new house, and having lots of sewing projects and knitting WIPs already going, there was no way I was going to do any sort of big project
But we've been talking about replacing our succession of gross kitchen sponges with washable scrubby cloths for a while now, and I had two skeins of cotton yarn in my stash from years and years ago, so Robert encouraged me to knit a few dishcloths.  The first one, up at the top, was fun and easy to knit, although since it has a seam that doesn't stretch, it ended up not being round.  I didn't manage to photograph it until it had already been used.  The second one was a super simple Grandmother's choice washcloth.  It used significantly less yarn than the first one.
The third one is a pattern I made up to try to use up the rest of the cotton yarn.  I started in the center with a turkish cast-on and a 3-stitch garter tab, then picked up three stitches on each side and started knitting in the round.  Then after a little bit I started knitting spiral stripes.  I did that until the red yarn ran out, and then I did a few rounds of garter stitch in blue and finished with a picot bind-off.  I didn't use up all of the blue yarn, but it was getting to be too big.  I also didn't manage to photograph this one until it had been used.

These were definitely a success!  They're not quite as scrubby as the scrubby side of a sponge, but on the whole they work well.  We'll see how they hold up through the washer and dryer, but I'm already planning to make more.  Our new washing machine has a very large capacity and runs best when it is completely full, so we're going to need several of these so we can change them often in between doing laundry.  Also, I have that leftover blue yarn to use up.

Sunday, July 31, 2016

Not Tour de Fleece

I didn't do the Tour de Fleece this year ... because I was too busy packing up our apartment and moving!  We moved across the country for my new job, as an assistant professor of mathematics at a small liberal arts college in the midwest!

Since we got to our new house about ten days ago, we've been busy unpacking our boxes and getting settled in our new house and new town.   But I have been doing some knitting and spinning.  I'm getting close to done with my Hello Yarn singles: (the picture is from before the move)
We've also been doing some gardening.  Because now we have our very own yard!  There was a strawberry patch already established when we moved in, so I've spent some time weeding that.  The strawberry patch takes up half of a large bed alongside the garage.  Our eventual plan is to put in rhubarb in the other half of that bed, but for now it was too late to plant anything but greens, so we weeded it out and planted some kale and broccoli seeds.  It's so exciting to see the little plants coming up!

Tuesday, July 12, 2016


I learned a new skill last week!  This sock (the first pair I made for Robert) has been sitting in my mending pile for several weeks.  I finally sat down and worked my way through the whole pile so I wouldn't have to move un-mended clothing.  I used this tutorial on how to knit on a patch, and I'm happy with how it turned out.  Next time I would pay more attention and make sure to knit the patch in the same direction as the socks - it didn't occur to me that this would be an issue when I was picking up stitches, but I think that would make it easier to graft the live stitches to the sock at the end of the patch.  I wasn't really thinking and knit this patch in the heel-to-cuff direction, even though the socks were knit cuff down.
The leftover black yarn from these socks is long gone, so I used some of the leftover navy blue from Robert's new socks.  Hopefully the patch will be hidden under his pant leg, so he can continue to wear these as dress socks!

Sunday, July 10, 2016

Seamwork Adelaide dress

I finished my newest dress - a Seamwork Adelaide!  On the whole, I'm really happy with it, and it's a nice, light, and comfortable casual summer dress.  My 2.5-year-old niece is really into buttons lately (snaps count, too), and when she saw me wearing this dress last weekend she very seriously asked me how many buttons it has.  We counted 15.
The fabric is a drapey polyester I found on sale for about $5/yard at JoAnn at the beginning of the summer.  I used gold bias binding to finish the neckline and armholes.  It was a windy day when we took these pictures, so the skirt looks a little weird in the next picture.
I love the print of this fabric, but it was a little bit slippery to work with.  The belt is not quite flat and there is a little bit of puckering or something going on at the sides.

I made a size 8 at the top graded out to a size 12 at the bottom.  Next time, I would made the grading more gradual (i.e. start at the same place around the bottom of the ribcage but finish lower), since I think the curve out to my hips is too abrupt and finishes too high.  I held up the paper pattern to my body and decided to make two alterations to the pattern:  I changed the angle of the dart, raising the dart point by about 1.5", and I lengthened the skirt by 3.5" at the lengthen/shorten line.  Since I had so much extra length, I ended up using 15 snaps instead of the 13 the pattern calls for - I kept the spacing between snaps the same as marked on the pattern.  I also used the bottom button loop markings for the tops of the button loops.

There were a few things I thought were a bit strange with the pattern:

  • the armholes are a little tight on me.  After I printed the pattern but before I cut it out I got an email with a link to an updated version of the pattern, but since all the email said was that they changed the fit of the armhole (it didn't say how) I decided to just make the version I had already printed.  I assume that the change is to make the armhole a little bigger, and I will probably try the new version if I make this again
  • the belt seems a lot narrower and bit longer than it looks in the pictures.  Also, it seems kind of strange to me that the pattern piece for the belt is concave rather than convex at the pointy end.  If it were convex the finished belt would be the same shape but it would be easier to sew
  • the belt loop marks are only an inch apart, even though the belt loop pieces are 2.5" long.  I think the marks should probably be 2" apart
I bought a pair of KamSnaps pliers and this is the first project I've used them on.  I bought size 14 long snaps in black, and I had to cut off the tips of the prongs, since my test snaps wouldn't close.  The KamSnaps website was very helpful for troubleshooting the snaps.  For the most part they were easy to use and I'm happy with how they worked, but I did have two (out of 15) that I squished the protruding part of when I put them in, so I had to remove them.  Removing them was hard, and it put a lot of wear on the fabric around those snaps.  I put some fraycheck on, but I'm pretty much just hoping it doesn't become  a problem.  Here's what the worn places look like.

Thursday, June 30, 2016

Planning a professional wardrobe

I'm starting a new job in the fall, and I feel like I need a whole new wardrobe.  I'll be a real live assistant professor, and the worn-out t-shirts I've been wearing for six years of grad school are not going to cut it - not to mention that the dress code norms (business casual) at my new school (a small private liberal arts college in the Midwest) are much more formal than the norm (full professors wearing shorts) in my grad school department at an R1 research-heavy university.

So I've been buying some apparel fabric and thinking about appropriate patterns ...
 In April, about a month after I signed my contract, I put in an order on sale at and got: 2.5 yards of  charcoal ponte de roma (75% polyester, 21% rayon, 4% spandex) for a long-sleeved Lady Skater dress, 1.5 yards of charcoal Bemberg rayon for lining a Phoebe dress, and 2 yards of teal shantung sateen (100% polyester) intended for a Phoebe dress but on second thought I think it might be too shiny and fancy for this application so I might save it for something else.  Those are all on the left in the picture.  On the right are fabrics I bought a few weeks ago when my sister-in-law and I went to shop the Hancock's Fabrics closing sale.  From top to bottom, they are 2.5 yards of blue geometric quilting cotton for a Megan dress, 1.75 yards of charcoal polyester gabardine for a Phoebe dress, 2 yards of quilting cotton for a McCall's M7285 view C (in the next picture), 2 yards of a navy blue wool blend for a McCall's M6757 skirt, and 2 yards of purple scuba knit for a Jenna cardigan.
I expect to buy a few pairs of warm tights (or make some leggings), and I already own two pairs of black dress slacks (although one of them needs to be hemmed), a yellow cardigan, and a handful of work-appropriate blouses.  I would like to have a white button-down shirt, which I'll most likely buy second hand, and maybe one or two more blouses.  I really want to try the Granville shirt pattern, but I didn't see any good shirtings at Hancock's.  I also have enough of a lovely light tangerine cotton voile with a firefly print for a fabric-hogging dress, so I think I might either make some of that into a Granville or another M7285 (and then still probably have enough left over for a non-fabric-hogging sundress).

With all of that (if I manage to sew very much of it between now and the start of classes) I think I'll have a pretty good business-casual capsule wardrobe!  I'm really excited about making more of my clothing, learning more apparel sewing techniques, and dipping my toes into fitting!

Tuesday, June 28, 2016

Madder shawlette finished

I finished this little shawlette in April, I think.  It was so long ago that I don't really remember.  After I finished it, it sat around for several weeks waiting to be blocked, and then several more weeks waiting to be photographed, and then the photos sat in my computer for another couple weeks.  I have a whole list of blog posts to write, but the combination of lots of post-graduation unstructured time, lots of moving-related stress and a to-do list a mile long makes it hard to actually sit down and write them.
This was a kit my mom put together for me for my birthday in February.  She picked out a special skein of yarn and included three patterns for me to choose from.  It was a fairly quick and easy knit.  I photographed it on a beautiful secretary-style desk made by my husband's great-grandfather.  Here's a modeled picture to show the scale.  I thought it was pretty small, but it looks almost like a full-sized shawl when I've got it on.
Pattern: Happenstance
Size: One size
Yarn: Abiquiu Dye Studio Abrash in Madder
Needles: US4 or 5 interchangeable circulars.  I don't remember.
Started/Completed: March 2016/April? 2016
Modifications: I added one extra repeat of the main chart before starting the border chart

Sunday, June 19, 2016

Birthday shirt

My nephew just had his first birthday.  I wanted to make him something to wear, like I've done for his sister for each of her birthdays.  I chose the Oliver + S sketchbook shirt.  I made the 12-18 months size and it fit him - I hear he's already worn it twice!
The only modification I made to the pattern was to use snaps instead of buttons.  I figured that snaps are easier for me to put in than buttons and buttonholes, and are also easier for his parents to fasten and unfasten when they're dressing him.
I felt like a sewing rockstar when I put in the collar - I followed the instructions in the pattern, including hand basting the collar to the shirt rather than pinning, and it went very smoothly.  Next time, I will use Nicole's trick of cutting the interfacing for the collar to make it fold more nicely.  I also love the little box pleat in the back.
I think I will be making this one again as my nephew gets bigger.  And it was a great way to dip my feet into shirt sewing.  I plan to work my way up to shirtdresses and men's and women's dress shirts!

Friday, June 17, 2016

Birthday socks

Robert's birthday was just over a month ago, and he had been wanting another pair of handknitted socks.  I knitted them in secret, but I didn't have enough secret knitting time to finish them before his birthday.  I ended up wrapping a package with one and a half socks in it, and then I finished the second sock a few days later.  He's happy with how they turned out, and they will help keep his feet warm in the cold Midwestern winter!
Pattern: From the recipe in More Sensational Knitted Socks (Alternating triangles stitch pattern)
Size: 70 stitches
Yarn: Cascade Heritage Sock in color 5601
Needles: US1 DPNs
Started/Completed: April 2016/May 2016
Modifications: No pattern to modify!

Wednesday, June 15, 2016

Knot theory socks finished!

I finished the knot theory socks in time to give them to my advisor on the day of my Ph.D. hooding.

As I said in my first post about these socks, the left sock (on the right in the pictures; it has four crossings) is a braid representation of the figure eight knot.  The right sock (on the left in these photos, and with six crossings) is a braid representation of a link: the Borromean Rings.

The Borromean rings are a 3-component link, meaning that it consists of three pieces of mathematical string, arranged in 3-dimensional space, with the two ends of each string glued together.  If we ignore how they are arranged in space, what we have is a collection of three circles.  The special thing about the Borromean rings is that they are the simplest Brunnian link.  A Brunnian link is a non-trivial link (with any number of components) with the property that if you remove any one component, the rest form an unlink.  (An unlink is a link in which each component is an unknot, and the components don't interact with each other at all.)

I think these socks turned out wonderfully.  I want to make a pair for myself!

Pattern: The cables are my own design. I referenced the book More Sensational Knitted Socks for numbers of stitches in the heel and toe.
Size: 64 stitches
Yarn: Knitpicks Stroll Fingering in Blue Violet Tonal
Needles: US0 (2mm) DPNs
Started/Completed: April 2016/May 2016
Modifications: No pattern to modify!

Tuesday, June 7, 2016

Me-Made-May Second half (and very late) (5/16-5/31)

Here are the me-made items I wore during the second half of May:  (as best as I can remember - I was on vacation for most of this time period, and now I've been home a week and am only now writing it all down)
I successfully finished my challenge - I think I actually wore all of the clothes I have sewn for myself, although not all of the items I've knit for myself.  I learned a few things about my me-made wardrobe.  I favor blue in the things I've sewn for myself (and I have a lot of blue ready-to-wear clothing).  I'd like to branch out a bit in terms of color.  I've also sewn a lot of clothing for warm weather, but not so much for cooler weather.  This needs to change, since we're moving to the Midwest this summer.  And third, most of the clothes I've sewn for myself are either quite casual or are dresses.  This has been perfectly appropriate for a graduate student, but I really want to be planning and sewing the wardrobe I'll need as a new assistant professor, so I'm thinking about more professional things to sew for myself.  One of these days I'll get myself together and write a whole post about that.

Wednesday, May 18, 2016

Monday, May 9, 2016

Me-Made-May Week 1

(Really week 1 plus one day, because it makes more sense for weeks to begin on Monday and end on Sunday.)

So far I've been successful in wearing at least one me-made garment each day.  Here's what I've worn so far:
A few things I've noticed so far: most of the clothing I've sewn for myself are skirts and dresses for warm weather.  I think I only have one re-fashioned top, and I haven't made any long pants or leggings.  This works well in my current location (I live in the hot humid South) but won't work so well once I move to the Midwest this summer, and have to deal with real winter.  

Thursday, May 5, 2016

A green giraffe dress! With buttons!

My niece's favorite animal is the giraffe.  And she is currently fascinated with buttons.  She recently asked her mom for a green giraffe dress with buttons.  So they went to the fabric store to look for green giraffe fabric, but the closest thing they could find was a flannel with yellow giraffes.

It just so happens that I also love giraffes, and I happened to have in my stash a cut of fabric with green and blue giraffes on it, together with a coordinating polka-dot.
They became an Oliver + S Jump Rope dress.  I made view A, in size 2T with some extra length - I cut the bodice on the 3T line, and then added some more to the skirt length.  I think it was at least 2", but I wasn't super-precise about it and I don't quite remember exactly what I did.
The dress has SEVEN buttons.  Three functional buttons on the placket, plus one on each sleeve tab and one on each pocket.  My niece was thrilled.  She immediately asked me to help her put it on (thank goodness it fit, and has some length for her to grow into) and mentioned several times later in the day that her dress has giraffes on it.
I've never sewn a placket before, but it wasn't too bad!  I used the Sew Mama Sew sew-along and it was very helpful.  I also asked for help estimating fabric requirements in the Oliver+S forums, and Nicole and the other ladies there were very helpful!

All in all, I am thrilled with how this little dress turned out and I had a lot of fun sewing it!

Sunday, May 1, 2016


I decided to participate in Me-Made May this year.  Here's my pledge:

I, Katherine of, sign up as a participant of Me-Made-May '16. I endeavour to wear at least one me-made or refashioned item each day for the duration of May 2016. Underwear will count!

I think this will be a very doable challenge - especially since I have two pairs of me-made underwear and am in the middle of sewing six more.  The underwear will be key later in the month when I'm backpacking for a few days (I plan on wearing my standard RTW backpacking clothing, but I will wear my me-made underwear).  I have several skirts that I've sewn, including one that I refashioned from a pair of jeans.  I also have a few dresses, including one that I plan to wear for my Ph.D. hooding in two weeks.  And of course I have several handknitted sweaters and shawls.  And I  use cloth menstrual pads that I sewed myself, so those will also get worn at some point.

Friday, April 29, 2016

My last CMS knitting

Every Thursday of the academic year for the last six years, I've gone to two seminars: CMS, the graduate student seminar in my department, then tea and cookies followed by Colloquium, our department-wide seminar (which is almost always a guest from outside our university).

I've brought my knitting to almost all of these talks (with the exception of several weeks last Fall when I brought my job applications because I needed more time to work on them).  Last Thursday was my last CMS.  It turned out that the week before was my last colloquium, since the speaker scheduled for last week fell ill and was unable to come.  I'm graduating!  I might have to come up with a new excuse for some kind of weekly update post.

My knitting last week wasn't particularly interesting.  I knitted most of the gusset on the first sock in the pair I'm knitting for my husband's birthday next month.  The black/navy yarn is pretty hard to see.  Knitting men's socks is much more time consuming than women's socks - I'm really noticing that this sock is going much more slowly than the purple knot theory socks I'm knitting for my advisor!

Thursday, April 21, 2016

Knot theory socks!

I'm a knot theorist.  (I've posted about this before.)  I defended my Ph.D. thesis last week, my semester ends next week (with me grading lots of finals ... ), and my graduation will be in mid-May.  I can barely believe I'm actually done, and I'm really excited to start my new job in August!  These knot theory socks are a present for my advisor, to thank her for all of the many, many things she has done for me.  I feel so lucky to have such a great advisor.

So, about the socks: purple is the unofficial team color of our research group, so choosing purple yarn was obvious.  I wanted a design that was knot-theory related, so this sock has a braid on the outside of the leg.

A bit about the math:

A knot is an embedding of a circle into 3-dimensional space.  Intuitively, we can think of a length of string that has been tied up in a knot and then had its ends glued together.  It is in some essential sense still a circle - if you were a tiny ant walking along the string, you would eventually get back to where you started, so all you would be able to tell would be that it is a circle (you wouldn't be able to gather any information about how it was knotted up).  In simplest terms, the basic question of knot theory is how to tell different knots apart.  More generally, knots and links (with more than one circle, but still knotted up somehow) are really important to how mathematicians understand 3- and 4-dimensional spaces.

Every knot and link can be represented as the closure of a braid.  A mathematical braid is a set of strands, all oriented in one direction, that can cross over each other but not loop back on themselves.  To take the braid closure, we glue the top and bottom ends together, with the rightmost top end glued to the rightmost bottom end, and so forth.  If we take the braid closure of the braid on this sock, we get the figure eight knot, which is a really cool knot!

The figure eight knot is the second-simplest non-trivial knot (the simplest is the trefoil), and it has the property of being amphicheiral, which means that it can be stretched and rearranged into its mirror image.  This is a very cool property!

The second sock (which I've already started) will have a braid whose closure is the Borromean Rings.  I'll explain why they're so cool once I've finished knitting the braid.

Sunday, April 17, 2016

CMS/Colloquium knitting

I finished the leg and knitted the heel flap on the first of Robert's birthday socks.  I ended up just sitting with nothing to do with my hands for the last 20 minutes of Colloquium on Thursday, because I didn't bring the More Sensational Socks book with me, and I needed it to tell me how to start the heel turn.

I also brought this with me to church this morning and knitted in between the services.  I finished the heel turn and started the gusset.  It's zipping along!

Sunday, April 10, 2016

CMS/Colloquium knitting: Secret Socks

I started a new project in CMS last week - a project I'm not working on at home, because these socks are going to be a birthday surprise for Robert.  The yarn is Cascade Heritage Sock in a color that I think is navy but other people seem to think is black.  I cast on 70 stitches and I'm working a stitch pattern from the More Sensational Knitted Socks book (which is a fantastic book!).

I made a good start on it in my two hours on Thursday afternoon, and it came to church with me this morning.  I have a bit over a month to get it done, so I think it's definitely doable!

Sunday, April 3, 2016

A finished Lofoten!

I finally finished this sweater a few weeks ago, and I'm SO happy with how it turned out. I've been wearing it all the time and getting compliments on it everywhere I go.
It fits perfectly, although the colorwork band at the bottom of the body does pull in a bit.  I did a tubular 2x2 cast-on for the bottom edge of the body, which was a new skill for me.
In addition to the challenge of the colorwork (which I'd never done on this scale before), the sweater has SEVEN steeks!  I'd done a steek once before, on this sweater for my niece, but there was only one and I sewed the stabilization stitches using my sewing machine before I cut it.  For this sweater, I hand crocheted the stabilization stitches.  I was really, really nervous about the steeks, and especially how to secure the cut edges at the sleeve caps and armscyes, but it all worked out.  I used a tutorial by Kate Davies and one by Elinor Brown and found them both incredibly helpful.
Pattern: Lofoten
Size: 36"
Yarn: Knitpicks Wool of the Andes Sport, from a kit
Needles: US5 circulars and DPNs
Started/Completed: February 2015/March 2016
Modifications: I think I lengthened the sleeves and maybe the body, too, but I can't quite remember.  I measured a RTW sweater that I like to choose the lengths.

Saturday, March 19, 2016

Last week's CMS/Colloquium knitting

My birthday was at the end of February, and my mom gave me a knitting kit she assembled herself: a skein of hand-dyed yarn (naturally dyed with madder) that she got while she was travelling earlier in the month, and a choice of three fingering-weight shawl patterns.  I chose one of the patterns ("Happenstance") and cast on.  It's moving pretty quickly - this is what it looked like at the end of my seminars just over a week ago, and it's grown quite a bit since then.

The yarn is a single-ply merino-silk blend, and it has a really beautiful sheen.  I think this is going to be a really lovely shawl once it's finished and blocked out!

Wednesday, March 16, 2016

Knitting on airplanes

I knit these socks almost entirely on airplanes and in airports ... they're my job interview socks!  I started them on the way to the Joint Math Meetings, where I interviewed for a whole bunch of jobs, and then continued knitting on my way to and from several campus interviews.  Now I'm finished with the socks, but unfortunately not quite done with interviews.
This pattern, Skew from Knitty, has a very interesting and unusual construction.  The socks are knit from the toe up, on the bias, and then there are some extra increases and decreases, and suddenly you're grafting the back of the heel together and continuing up the leg.
There is a left sock and a right sock.

The yarn is Shibui Staccato Sock, and it was lovely to work with.  I got it from my mom a few years ago, and when I decided to knit socks from it I went on the hunt for a pattern that would show off the color changes in the yarn.  I think Skew was perfect!

Pattern: Skew
Size: one size
Yarn: Shibui Staccato Sock
Needles: I already can't remember - US2 DPNs?
Started/Completed: January 2016/March 2016
Modifications: none